Recommendations For Psa Testing
According to a 2019 position statement from the European Association of Urology, a baseline PSA test in men aged 45 years at risk of prostate cancer should be used in combination with family history, ethnicity, and other factors to establish individualized screening frequency.
The American Urological Association and the American Cancer Society offer divergent recommendations on prostate-specific antigen screening. The AUA recommends baseline PSA testing, along with digital rectal examination , at age 40 for all men with a life expectancy of 10 years or more, with subsequent testing intervals determined on the basis of the PSA level and DRE results.
The ACS does not specify an age at which to pursue screening in asymptomatic men with a life expectancy of 10 years or more rather, the ACS advises clinicians to provide men with information on the risks and benefits of screening so the patient can make an informed decision. In addition, the ACS recommends that men whose initial PSA level is below 2.5 ng/mL can be screened every 2 years, but men with higher PSA values should be tested annually.
From these findings, the investigators concluded that potentially curable prostate cancer is not compromised when measuring PSA every other year in men with PSA levels of 2 ng/mL or less, as long as the DRE findings are normal.
Bens Total Health For The Prostate
Our natural prostate supplement, Bens Total Health, contains 21 ingredients specifically designed to lower your PSA levels, improve your urinary flow, reduce nighttime urination, shrink your prostate, and fight against prostate disease, without any side effects.
Clinical trials and meta-studies show the active ingredients in Total Health have a positive impact on prostate volume, improve lower urinary tract symptoms, and decrease the risk of acute urinary retention.
What Foods Kill Prostate Cancer Cells
No food will directly kill prostate cancer cells. A healthy diet made up of specific superfoods will improve prostate health. Start by increasing your consumption of fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidants that fight cancer.
- Isoflavones are present in foods like soybeans, chickpeas, peanuts, alfalfa sprouts and lentils. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that help regulate hormones and cause cell death. Consider adding foods like peanut butter, hummus and tofu to your diet to boost isoflavone consumption.
- Lycopene is an antioxidant that is in red foods like tomatoes. It is easiest for your body to break down if it is cooked or pureed like in marinara sauce, tomato paste, tomato juice or sundried tomatoes.
- Plant-based fats are the preferred dietary choice. Animal fats, like those found in lard, butter and cheese, cause an increase in the risk of prostate cancer. Choose instead olive oil, avocados, nuts and seeds for your fat consumption.
- Coffee also has benefits. A 2015 study found that coffee may have a beneficial effect related to coffee consumption.
- Green tea according to multiple studies. Green tea supplements may help as well.
Also Check: What Is Best Test For Prostate Cancer
Can You Fully Recover From Prostate Cancer
Yes, when diagnosed early and treated promptly, the chance of curing prostate cancer can be almost 100%. However, when prostate cancer is metastatic, it is treatable, but cure is not possible.
For those who undergo a prostatectomy, the postoperative short-term recovery involves a night in the hospital and regaining your mobility. After youre able to walk, you will return home to recuperate for a month before returning to work. You also cannot lift heavy objects for 6 weeks or drive for 7 to 10 days.
Long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment include urinary dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, bowel issues, infertility and issues resulting from hormone therapy. However, with pelvic floor physical therapy and medications, long-term side effects can often be treated.
Prostate Cancer Stages: What You Need To Know
There are four prostate cancer stages, which refer to how quickly and how far the cancer has spread.
The stages are based on guidelines set by the American Joint Committee on Cancer .
To determine your prostate cancer stage, your doctor will perform a number of tests, including:
- Digital rectal exam, in which your prostate is felt for abnormalities
- A blood test to measure the amount of PSA that’s circulating in your body
- A biopsy to extract cancerous tissue and grade how likely it will spread based on its appearance compared with normal prostate tissue
- Various imaging tests, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans
- Bone scans to look for cancerous cells in bone
Don’t Miss: What Does It Mean When Your Prostate Hurts
Psa Testing For Detection Of Prostate Cancer
The introduction of prostate-specific antigen testing into clinical practice has greatly increased the detection of localized prostate cancer and, by doing so, has decreased the diagnosis of regional and metastatic disease. PSA testing has had such a profound clinical effect that questions have arisen regarding the significance of the cancers that are being detected.
Stage, grade, tumor volume, and PSA testing are used to determine whether a prostate cancer is clinically significant or insignificant. However, there is no generally accepted precise definition for this distinction.
The goal of early detection of prostate cancer is to identify clinically significant cancers at a time when treatment is most likely to be effective. The risk of death from prostate cancer is significant in those with moderate- to high-grade tumors. This is especially true in younger men. Long-term survival is compromised when the cancer has spread beyond the confines of the prostate, into the regional lymph nodes, and to distant sites.
Several studies have shown that with a PSA cutoff of 4.0 ng/mL, clinically insignificant cancers are detected in fewer than 20% of men, but nearly 50% of all the cancers detected because of an elevated PSA level are localized, and these patients are candidates for potentially curative therapy. Only a small proportion of prostate cancers detected by PSA testing and treated with radical prostatectomy are low-volume and low-grade tumors.
Worried About Your Psa Levels
If you have high PSA levels and want to learn how to naturally lower your PSA, book a free health consultation to speak with one of our expert advisors. This fifteen-minute consult gives you the opportunity to ask questions and receive tailored advice to your concerns.
Also Check: How To Check Your Prostate
What Are Psa Tests
Prostate-specific antigen is a protein made by a man’s prostate gland .
PSA tests are used to measure the level of PSA in a man’s blood. A raised level of PSA can be a sign of a prostate condition, such as:
Before having a PSA test, men should not have ejaculated during the previous 48 hours.
Semen released during sexual activity can cause PSA levels to rise temporarily, which may affect the test results.
For the same reason, before having a PSA test men should not have:
- exercised vigorously in the previous 48 hours
- an active urinary infection
- had a prostate biopsy in the previous 6 weeks
Using Medication To Reduce Symptoms
Don’t Miss: What Are The Effects Of Removing The Prostate
What Is The Controversy Surrounding Psa Screening
In recent years, there has been some controversy surrounding the PSA test. In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force assigned the PSA test a D rating. This meant that the USPSTF concluded the harms that resulted from PSA testing, such as unnecessary biopsies and negative treatment side effects, outweighed the benefits of finding and managing the disease early. This recommendation did not include exceptions for men at increased risk of developing the disease, such as African American men, those with a family history of the disease, and those with BRCA gene mutations. The USPSTF recommendation is important as it guides primary care physicians in preventive care and can impact insurance coverage and reimbursement for screening. Prior to its D rating, the PSA test had an I rating, meaning the USPSTF concluded there was insufficient evidence to assess the pros and cons of testing.
In May 2018, the USPSTF updated their recommendation on PSA screening. In response to new research demonstrating the benefits of PSA screening , an increase in the number of men choosing active surveillance, and advocacy efforts, the USPSTF released a draft recommendation in April 2017 that assigns the PSA test a C rating for men ages 55 to 69 . This rating has now been certified official by the task force.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
First, you may be found to have an elevated PSA level. However, other conditions can cause abnormal PSAs. Prostate cancer is actually diagnosed with a prostate biopsy, which involves removing small pieces of tissue from the prostate and examining them under a microscope for cancer cells. If the cancer cells are present, you will need to discuss your treatment options with your cancer care team.
Your follow-up care will depend on the extent of your cancer. Important considerations include the size of the tumor, whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other areas of the body, your PSA level and the Gleason grade group.
The pathologist who examines your biopsies will review the tissue and give a Gleason score grade groupthat is between 1 and 5. Grade group 1 is considered low grade , grades 2 and 3 intermediate, and 4 and 5 high grade .
You May Like: What Are The Treatments For Prostate Cancer
Current Psa Screening Recommendations
PSA-based screening refers to testing healthy men without symptoms.
Until recently, physician societies disagreed on screening recommendations, but with the publication of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guideline in May 2018, all the major physician groups are broadly in agreement, including the American College of Physicians , the American Cancer Society , American Urological Association , and American Society of Clinical Oncology :
- They advise supporting men so that they make informed decisions about screening that reflect their personal preferences and values.
- Routine screening is not recommended in men between ages 40 and 54 of average risk.
- For men ages 55 to 69 years, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded with moderate certainty that the net benefit of PSA-based screening is small for some men, making the decision up to the judgment of the physician and the values of the patient.”
- For men 70 years and older, they recommend against routine screening because the expected harms are thought to outweigh the benefits.
- Your doctor should not screen you unless you express a preference for it.
- A discussion of the benefits and harms of screening should include a family history of prostate cancer, race or ethnicity, any medical conditions that affect your overall health and lifespan, and your values about risk and benefit.
- If you have less than a 10-year life expectancy, screening is not recommended.
What If My Psa Levels Are Considered High
If your test shows an increased PSA level, please consult your physician for further diagnosis. To help give you an idea of what your physician may do next to help you, here’s a quote from Dr Jeffery Herz, MD of Halo Diagnostics:
“Typically, an abnormal PSA level will result in a consultation with us which often involves obtaining a family history of prostate cancer, a complete medical/surgical history including current medications, a discussion regarding voiding status, evaluation of previous PSA levels , consideration of further evaluation including possible repeat PSA tests and the need for possible prostate biopsy”
Jeffery Herz, MD | Board Certified Urologist, HALO Dx
If youâre interested in learning more about the innovative diagnosis and treatment techniques for prostate cancer, visit our partners at Halo Diagnostics to learn more about multiparametric prostate MRI and laser focal therapy.
You May Like: What Age Do Prostate Exams Start
What Is Biopsy And How Is It Done
Once we find an abnormal area in the prostate on ultrasound, we need to remove small pieces of prostate for pathological examination called prostate biopsy.
While the ultrasound probe is in the rectum, a biopsy needle is inserted through the probe and under the ultrasound guidance, biopsies are performed. Six to twelve tine pieces of tissue are taken from the prostate. These pieces of prostate tissue are then sent to a Laboratory where a pathologist who is an expert in prostate cancer examined these pieces under the microscope to determine.
- Whether cancer is present
- Evaluate microscopic features of cancer
- Whether suspicious lesions are present
- Or the biopsy is negative for cancer
- Whether inflammation is present
Experts In Urology Care
If you are experiencing symptoms consistent with urinary issues, we urge you to complete our urologic cancer risk assessment form.
Not everyone should get a PSA test. Why? Because many in this country are treated for low-risk prostate cancer that is discovered through the PSA test, even when it is unlikely that the disease will ever cause symptoms or lead to death. And treatment is associated with significant side effects, including impotence and incontinence . You should discuss whether prostate cancer early detection is right for you with your personal primary care physician.
To avoid the risks of over-treatment, Roswell Park follows the guidelines established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network . The NCCN brings together world-renowned experts from 30 of the nations top cancer centers to write guidelines that specify the best ways of preventing, detecting and treating cancer. The guidelines are updated at least every year, on the basis of the latest research.
Michael Kuettel, MD, PhD, MBA, Chair of Roswell Park’s Department of Radiation Medicine, serves on the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel.
If you decide that Prostate Cancer Early Detection is right for you, the NCCN recommends PSA testing as follows:
You May Like: What’s Good For Prostate Problems
Psa For African Americans
If I Have Elevated Psa Levels What Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have any symptoms of prostate cancer, or if it runs in your family, ask your provider:
- Should I have regular tests to check my PSA level?
- What can I do to lower my risk for prostate cancer?
- What other tests or monitoring do I need?
- What are my treatment options if I get prostate cancer?
- What other signs or symptoms should I look out for?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
An elevated PSA level can be a sign of prostate cancer, but it doesnt always mean you have cancer. Your healthcare provider will watch you and do more tests to arrive at a diagnosis. Prostate cancer is often slow-growing and may never become life-threatening. If you have symptoms of prostate problems, such as difficulty urinating, don’t hesitate to let your provider know.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 04/06/2021.
How Do You Prepare For A Psa Test
You do not need to fast from food or drink before taking a PSA test. There are currently no foods or beverages to avoid before taking a PSA test. While some foods might be linked to prostate conditions, no scientific evidence links the consumption of one food to elevated PSA levels. There is no need to avoid certain foods, coffee or alcohol before taking a PSA test.
What Are The Recommendations For Prostate Cancer Screening
The best way to detect prostate cancer early is through a blood test called a prostate-specific antigen test.
The American Cancer Society recommends starting prostate cancer screening at these ages:
- Starting at age 50: Routine screening with a PSA test so long as they are expected to live another 10 years or more.
- Starting at age 45: Screen if they are at a high risk of developing prostate cancer and have risk factors such as being African American or having a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 65.
- Starting at age 40: Screen if at higher risk and have more than 1 first-degree relative with early-age prostate cancer.
Before undergoing any screening services for prostate cancer, talk to your doctor. The age for prostate cancer screening is based on health status and risk for prostate cancer. Overall health status is more important than age when making a decision about proceeding with prostate cancer screening.
Recommended Reading: Can A Man Get An Erection After Prostate Removal