Information For Well Men Aged 50 And Over
You can refer to the infographic above and direct patients to the information sheet for well men aged 50 and over for a summary of the potential benefits and risks of PSA testing.
The information sheet for well men includes the above infographic, which explains the PSA test. It also includes a list of the potential advantages and disadvantages of the PSA test for men to consider when making a decision.
The Office for Health Improvement and Disparities created this information on behalf of the NHS.
Causes Of Prostate Cancer
The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. But certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men aged 50 or older.
For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in black men and less common in Asian men.
Men whose father or brother were affected by prostate cancer are at slightly increased risk themselves.
Recent research also suggests that obesity increases the risk of prostate cancer.
A Cancer Prevention Plan For Men
Finding cancer early improves your chances of successful treatment and long-term survival.
- lumps, sores or ulcers that don’t heal
- unusual changes in your testicles changes in shape, consistency or lumpiness
- coughs that don’t go away or show blood, a hoarseness that persists
- weight loss that can’t be explained
- moles that have changed shape, size or colour, or bleed, or an inflamed skin sore that hasn’t healed
- blood in a bowel motion
- persistent changes in toilet habits
- urinary problems or changes.
These symptoms are often related to more common, less serious health problems. However, if you notice any unusual changes, or these symptoms persist, visit your doctor.
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Screenings Can Lead To High Costs
The cost for a PSA test is fairly lowabout $40.
If your result is abnormal, the costs start adding up. Your doctor will usually refer you to a urologist for a biopsy. Costs may include:
- A consultation fee .
- An ultrasound fee .
- Additional professional fees .
If the biopsy causes problems, there are more costs. You might also have hospital costs.
Do False Negatives And False Positives Happen
The PSA test is not a fool-proof method to test for prostate cancer.
When prostate cancer develops, PSA levels often rise about 4.0 ng/mL, but there are exceptions to the rule.
A showed that some people with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL had prostate cancer, while some with higher levels did not.
The ACS states that about of people with a PSA below 4 will have prostate cancer.
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Concerns About Prostate Cancer Screening
If prostate cancer is found as a result of screening, it will probably be at an earlier, more treatable stage than if no screening were done. While this might make it seem like prostate cancer screening would always be a good thing, there are still issues surrounding screening that make it unclear if the benefits outweigh the risks for most men.
Understanding Your Psa Test Results
PSA is usually measured in nanograms per millilitre of blood . There is no one PSA value that is considered normal. The value varies from man to man and increases as you get older. Most men have a PSA level of less than 3ng/ml.
Your GP or specialist may suggest further tests if your PSA level is higher than would be expected for someone of your age. Talk to your doctor about your PSA level and what this means for you.
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Are There Any Holistic Treatments For Prostate Cancer
Its well worth exploring alternative treatment approaches to prostate cancer. Whether as a standalone treatment or a complementary therapy to other interventions, there are several holistic options patients can look at.
Insulin potentiation therapy, a low-dose chemotherapy approach, has also demonstrated results in treating prostate tumors. Since cancerous cells have higher numbers of insulin receptors than normal cells, delivering traditional anticancer medications together with insulin allows those medications to get through the cells protective barrier to destroy them from within.
Research also shows that prostate cancer responds well to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, a treatment in which patients receive oxygen at increased pressures, delivering more oxygen into their bloodstream. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy leverages cancers affinity for low-oxygen environments to decrease prostate cancers rate of growth and increase its sensitivity to cancer-fighting drugs.
If youve recently received a diagnosis of prostate cancer, the Brio-Medical Cancer Clinic can help you find a treatment that works for you. Get in touch with our office to schedule your free consultation today.
What To Do If You Think You Are At Higher Risk Of Prostate Cancer
Speak to your GP if you think you are at higher risk of prostate cancer. For example if you:
- are a Black male or a Black person who has a prostate
- have a close relative, such as brother or father, who has prostate cancer
- have inherited certain genes which can increase the risk of prostate cancer
The risk of prostate cancer also increases as men get older.
The evidence so far suggests that routinely screening people who have a high risk of prostate cancer doesnt help prevent deaths. In fact, it might lead to men having treatment for prostate cancer even though that cancer wouldnt have caused any problems or symptoms.
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What Do My Psa Test Results Mean
Once your test results are back, your healthcare provider will let you know if any additional testing is recommended. PSA levels can vary over time for several reasons unrelated to prostate cancer . So, if you have a borderline PSA, your provider may simply recommend another PSA test in six months or so.
Getting The Results Of The Biopsy
Your biopsy samples will be sent to a lab, where they will be looked at with a microscope to see if they contain cancer cells. Getting the results usually takes at least 1 to 3 days, but it can sometimes take longer. The results might be reported as:
- Positive for cancer: Cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Negative for cancer: No cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Suspicious: Something abnormal was seen, but it might not be cancer.
If the biopsy is negative
If the prostate biopsy results are negative , and the chance that you have prostate cancer isnt very high based on your PSA level and other tests, you might not need any more tests, other than repeat PSA tests sometime later.
But even if many samples are taken, biopsies can still sometimes miss a cancer if none of the biopsy needles pass through it. This is known as a false-negative result. If your doctor still strongly suspects you have prostate cancer , your doctor might suggest:
- Getting other lab tests to help get a better idea of whether or not you might have prostate cancer. Examples of such tests include the Prostate Health Index , 4Kscore test, PCA3 tests , and ConfirmMDx. These tests are discussed in Whats New in Prostate Cancer Research?
- Getting a repeat prostate biopsy. This might include getting additional samples of parts of the prostate not biopsied the first time, or using imaging tests such as MRI to look more closely for abnormal areas to target.
Prostate cancer grade
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Professor Richard Hindley Clinical Advisor For Prostate Cancer
The evidence to support the use of routine PSA testing is stronger than ever. PSACheck enables men to have the test performed and provides all the necessary support and guidance should the test flag anything of concern. An early PSA test as a marker in the sand is very useful and can be used for future comparison and improves hugely the utility of this simple and inexpensive test.
Prostate Checker For Early Detection
Around 46,500 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in the UK each year. Detection is the best line of defence and can help you to seek medical help faster than ever before. Our smart and simple at-home prostate cancer testing strips empower men to test for cancer, with results provided in 20 seconds.
Combat prostate cancer head-on and test for unseen traces of blood in your urine to be one-step ahead of this life-threatening disease.
Supporting the NHS campaign to check for prostate symptoms, IcleTest has developed an ISO-accredited and CE marked prostate checker that only requires you to urinate on a test strip for instant results. Designed to be used as a health checker, should you receive a positive result, you should book an appointment to see your doctor for further investigation.
Since unseen blood in your urine can also be a sign of kidney cancer and bladder cancer, this new at-home test kit will help men across the country prioritize their health, without having to wait for signs or symptoms of cancer to appear.
Early detection means a stronger fight, so dont let cancer have the upper hand!
Order your prostate cancer test kit now.
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The Test Is Often Not Needed
Most men with high PSAs dont have prostate cancer. Their high PSAs might be due to:
- An enlarged prostate gland.
- Recent sexual activity.
- A recent, long bike ride.
Up to 25% of men with high PSAs may have prostate cancer, depending on age and PSA level. But most of these cancers do not cause problems. It is common for older men to have some cancer cells in their prostate glands. These cancers are usually slow to grow. They are not likely to spread beyond the prostate. They usually dont cause symptoms, or death.
Studies show that routine PSA tests of 1,000 men ages 55 to 69 prevent one prostate cancer death. But the PSA also has risks.
Benefits Of Screening In Studies Have Not Been Clear
Doctors are still studying if screening tests will lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The most recent results from 2 large studies were conflicting, and didnt offer clear answers.
- Early results from a large study done in the United States found that annual screening with PSA and DRE did detect more prostate cancers than in men not screened, but this screening did not lower the death rate from prostate cancer. However, questions have been raised about this study, because some men in the non-screening group actually were screened during the study, which might have affected the results.
- A European study did find a lower risk of death from prostate cancer with PSA screening , but the researchers estimated that about 781 men would need to be screened to prevent one death from prostate cancer.
- Neither of these studies has shown that PSA screening helps men live longer overall .
Prostate cancer is often slow-growing, so the effects of screening in these studies might become clearer in the coming years. Both of these studies are being continued to see if longer follow-up will give clearer results. Prostate cancer screening is being studied in several other large studies, as well.
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What Happens After A Prostate Biopsy
If the biopsy indicates that a patient has prostate cancer, the doctor will usually check the cells for aggressiveness using Gleason scoring or genomic testing.
There are a variety of therapies doctors can use to treat prostate cancer. In fact, low-grade prostate cancer, says Klein, often can be managed without treatment, provided the doctor keeps an eye on any developments.
For more serious cases, there are several options available. Small tumors, Klein says, often respond well to focal therapy, a treatment in which doctors remove only part of the prostate gland. Since this therapy keeps part of the prostate gland intact, it is a popular choice among doctors and patients alike. Radiation therapy can include external beam radiation or brachytherapy, inserting radioactive seeds into the prostate gland.
For extremely aggressive cancers, doctors might recommend a total prostatectomy, the removal of the entire prostate gland. Hormone therapies, chemotherapy, and testosterone blockers also can slow prostate cancers progress.
Prostate cancers have a 100% five-year survival rate and a 90% ten-year survival rate, says Klein. The important thing, he adds, is to catch them early before they metastasize into other parts of the body.
Lymph Node Biopsy As A Separate Procedure
A lymph node biopsy is rarely done as a separate procedure. Its sometimes used when a radical prostatectomy isnt planned , but when its still important to know if the lymph nodes contain cancer.
Most often, this is done as a needle biopsy. To do this, the doctor uses an image to guide a long, hollow needle through the skin in the lower abdomen and into an enlarged node. The skin is numbed with local anesthesia before the needle is inserted to take a small tissue sample. The sample is then sent to the lab and looked at for cancer cells.
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What To Do If You Are Worried About Prostate Cancer
Talk to your GP if you’re worried about prostate cancer. Or if you have urinary symptoms such as difficulty passing urine. The symptoms don’t mean that you have prostate cancer, but it is important to get them checked.
Adult screening programme Prostate cancerUK National Screening Committee, Last accessed March 20222
Screening for prostate cancer. External review against programme appraisal criteria for the UK National Screening CommitteeUK National Screening Committee, October 2020
Prostate cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow upC Parker and others
How To Self Test For Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer is the most common type of cancer for men in the UK. It is a major health concern for older men as theyre more susceptible to developing it.
Cancer Research UK has seen approximately 47,000 cases new prostate cancer cases are diagnosed each every year between 2013 to 2015. This averages to 130 positive diagnoses a day. It is predicted that 1 in 8 men in the UK will be diagnosed at some point in their lives.
However, in recent breakthroughs in self-testing, it is possible to test for it in the privacy of your own home. In this article, we look at how men can self-test for prostate cancer in the privacy of their own homes.
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What Is Screening For Prostate Cancer
Some men get a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor, learn what is involved, and decide if a PSA test is right for you.
Cancer screening means looking for cancer before it causes symptoms. The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancers that may be at high risk for spreading if not treated, and to find them early before they spread.
There is no standard test to screen for prostate cancer. Two tests that are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer are described below.
Genetic Testing For Some Men With Prostate Cancer
Some doctors now recommend that some men with prostate cancer be tested to look for certain inherited gene changes. This includes men in whom a family cancer syndrome is suspected, as well as men with prostate cancer that has certain high-risk features or that has spread to other parts of the body. Talk to your doctor about the possible pros, cons, and limitations of such testing.
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Does Ejaculating Help Prostatitis
What are the symptoms of an enlarged prostate?
Symptoms of BPH include difficulty starting to urinate, slow flow, dribbling, inability to urinate, and frequent urination are all common problems. If left untreated, an enlarged prostate can result in further complications, such as urinary retention, urinary tract infections, bladder, and kidney damage.
How Can I Prepare For An At
Most at-home PSA kits recommend that you collect blood samples first thing in the morning, but no fasting is required.
While no food or drinks are proven to skew results, imaware notes that some supplements and medications may raise or lower PSA levels.
You should consult with your doctor if youre undergoing chemotherapy or taking any of the following medications or supplements:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Heavy exercise can also temporarily increase PSA levels, leading to inaccurate results. According to LetsGetChecked, even seemingly simple activities, like riding a bike, may increase your PSA level. Its best to refrain from exercise for a few days prior to testing.
Prostate infections, urinary retention, urologic procedures, or recent pelvic injuries can also impact your PSA levels, so its best to consult with your doctor if youre experiencing an infection or taking antibiotics.
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How Can You Detect An Enlarged Prostate At Home
put on some gloves and put lubricant on one finger. assess the area around the rectum for anything unusual. gently insert a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum. feel the prostate to assess the size and check for bumps, soft or hard spots, and other abnormalities.
Can you feel your prostate from the outside?
Because the prostate is an internal organ, your doctor cannot look at it directly. But because the prostate lies in front of the rectum, they can feel it by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum.