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Gold Markers Prostate Cancer Side Effects

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What Type Of Technology Does This Treatment Use

Prostate Cancer Radiation Fiducial Marker and SpaceOAR Gel Procedure ABS Virtual Reality (360 VR)

We use real time, 3-dimensional imaging to carefully place each seed at a predetermined location and depth. In this way, we cover the entire gland and the cancer site. The number of seeds implanted into your prostate will depend on your unique anatomy.

We place an ultrasound probe in your rectum to image the prostate. We also use continuous X-ray imaging. Together, these provide a magnified, 3D view of your prostate during the procedure. After the implantationand while you are still anesthetizedwe will check your urethra and bladder and retrieve any seeds found in your bladder.

How Does Sbrt Compare With Longer Courses Of Radiation

As of 2020, SBRT is considered a standard of care option for any patient with low through very-high risk prostate cancer who is considering radiation therapy. The first patient to be treated with modern prostate SBRT was treated in December 2000. Since then, a large amount of data and evidence have amassed demonstrating the safety and efficacy of SBRT. UCLA investigators have played a leading role in accumulating and publishing these data. To date, the best data available to support SBRT for prostate cancer are:

A study led by Dr. Amar Kishan that compiled the outcomes of 2142 men treated with SBRT between 2000-2012, showing low rates of toxicity and high efficacy with a median follow-up of nearly 7 years. The article can be found here:

The HYPO-RT-PC randomized trial, which directly compared conventional radiation against a high-dose-per-day treatment across seven sessions in 1200 Swedish men. Importantly, this trial used older radiation planning techniques and did not deliver modern SBRT. Regardless, the efficacy and long-term side effects were equivalent in both arms of the trial. The article can be found here:

Who Can Have Sbrt

Men with low-risk or favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer can be treated with SBRT alone.

For men with high-risk prostate cancer , it is not known if treating with SBRT alone is enough treatment. These men should probably have a combination of different treatments. One option for this is hormonal therapy for 12 36 months, SBRT boost for 2 3 treatments, and conventional radiation to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes for 25 treatments.

Other limitations for SBRT are that the prostate gland should be small enough for SBRT, ideally less than 60cc , but occasionally up to 100cc. A normal prostate gland is about 30cc . There should not have been previous surgery on the prostate gland, i.e no prior TURP. It is preferable that there are no serious urinary symptoms before treatment starts. Patients also need to be able to tolerate having gold seeds inserted into prostate gland.

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About Fiducial Markers And Rectal Spacers

Fiducial markers are tiny metal objects . They help your healthcare providers line up the beams of radiation and make sure your radiation therapy is delivered exactly the same way each time. This helps them target the tumor and avoid your nearby healthy tissue. The fiducial markers will stay in your prostate after your treatment.

Youll get a rectal spacer called SpaceOAR hydrogel. It is a gel thats placed between your prostate and rectum to move your rectum away from your prostate. This protects your rectum from radiation and reduces some side effects of radiation therapy. The rectal spacer will stay in place for 3 months. Then, itll be absorbed by your body and come out in your urine.

  • Work in a hospital or nursing home.

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SpaceOAR and Gold Seeds

Symptomatic treatment of an enlarged prostate usually involves a combination of medication and lifestyle changes. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be the best option if you suffer from chronic urination. It will help the body adjust to the increased size of the prostate. Also, taking regular urination intervals will help retrain the bladder to function properly. Inactivity also contributes to urine retention, and cold temperatures can increase the urge to urinate.

Invasive treatment of enlarged prostate includes medication that relieves the pressure on the urethra and bladder. However, if the condition is severe, it may require surgical intervention. If treatment is not successful, the enlarged prostate can become a potentially life-threatening disease. As the hormone levels in the body change, the enlarged prostate can lead to various complications, including urinary retention and even cancer. This is why it is critical to see a doctor for further evaluation.

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Using Golden Seed Treatment Of Prostate Cancer

Daniela Capdepon

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Centro Oncol?gico campana, Argentina

Correspondence: Daniela Capdepn MD, Medical Director of the Cÿncer Center Campana, Oncology and Oncohematology, General Hospital Galarza, Entre Ros Salaberry Hospital in Victoria, Entre Ros, Argentina, Tel 54 9 3489 618997

Received: February 05, 2016 | Published: April 14, 2016

Citation: Capdepon D Using Golden Seed Treatment of Prostate Cancer. J Cancer Prev Curr Res 4: 00130. DOI: 10.15406/jcpcr.2016.04.00130

Ask About Your Medications

You may need to stop taking some of your medications before your procedure. Talk with your healthcare provider about which medications are safe for you to stop taking. Weve included some common examples below.

Blood Thinners

Blood thinners are medications that affect the way your blood clots. If you take blood thinners, ask the healthcare provider performing your procedure what to do. They may recommend you stop taking the medication. This will depend on the type of procedure youre having and the reason youre taking blood thinners.

Examples of blood thinners include:

Do not stop taking your blood thinner medication without talking with a member of your care team.

Follow Your Healthcare Providers Instructions for Taking Aspirin

If you take aspirin or a medication that contains aspirin, you may need to change your dose or stop taking it 7 days before your procedure. Aspirin can cause bleeding.

Follow your healthcare providers instructions. Do not stop taking aspirin unless they tell you to.

For more information, read Common Medications Containing Aspirin, Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs , or Vitamin E.

Stop Taking Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Stop taking NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen , 2 days before your procedure. NSAIDs can cause bleeding.

If your healthcare provider gives you other instructions, follow those instead.

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How Long Has This Procedure Been Around

Using internal radioactive sources to treat cancer is not a new concept it emerged over 100 years ago. However, radioactive seed localization specifically is a relatively new technique the first procedure in the Ottawa Hospital Radioactive Seed Localization Program was on April 21, 2015. Our hospital was the third centre in Canada to have this program, and we are a leader in the procedure, with other healthcare centres looking to us for guidance.

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Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

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After our planning and testing period, you will start your radiation therapy.

For stereotactic body radiation therapy at Valley, we use the Varian TrueBeam platform combined with the BrainLab ExacTrac Dynamic system. This system allows us to visualize your internal anatomy before and during treatment.

This visualization allows us to see whether your bladder is filled appropriately, that there isnt too much gas in your rectum, and that your prostate is aligned correctly for treatment.

During treatment:

  • During treatment, you will lie on the table in your fixation device. You should not feel any discomfort as the treatment is happening.
  • Once treatment begins, the BrainLab ExacTrac Dynamic system monitors the surface of your body and the implanted fiducials in your prostate for any movement.
  • If your prostate moves, the machine will stop the radiation beam automatically and adjust your position. It will then restart treatment.

Treatment length:

  • TrueBeam is much faster than other linear accelerators , which means there is less time for the prostate to move.
  • For the Think Five approach, you will have five treatments spread out over approximately 10 days. Each treatment will last 30 45 min, which includes all the time for changing, set up, position verification, and treatment.
  • Alternatively, you may be recommended to receive 28 treatmentsfive days a week for five to six weeks. Each treatment will last 15 20 minutes.

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Seed Migration To The Kidneys And Batsons Vertebral Plexus Is Not Very Rare

The results of the present study show a total of four and five cases of seed migration to the kidneys and Batsonâs vertebral venous plexus, respectively, at only one institution, which suggests that such cases are not very rare. Meanwhile, in previous studies, a total of only four and four cases of seed migration to the kidneys and Batsonâs vertebral venous plexus, respectively, have been reported as rare cases, which is in disagreement with our conclusion . The same number or more cases of seed migration to these areas were found in our single study compared with all previous studies. A possible explanation is that, in the present study, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to detect seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis at several time points after seed implantation. Moreover, in all patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis, a CT scan was undertaken to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Consequently, more cases of seed migration to the kidneys and Batsonâs vertebral venous plexus were found in the present study. We speculate that some seed migration to the kidneys and Batsonâs vertebral venous plexus might have gone undetected in other institutions.

What Can You Expect On The Day Of Your Procedure

You will be asked to lie on a table and a nurse will watch your heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and pulse. In some cases, you may get an intravenous line for medication that will make you sleepy, medication to make you relax, or antibiotics before your procedure. They may also use a numbing lubricant or shot to numb and lessen any pain during the procedure. This will all depend on where the fiducial markers are being placed.

The placement of the fiducial markers is often guided by either computed tomography or ultrasound . In some cases, an endoscope, a flexible device with a light that is used to see inside a body cavity or organ, is also used. The type of imaging used depends on the type and place of the tumor.

Fiducial marker needles.

The fiducial markers are put into place using a tool that looks like a needle. The needles are placed through the skin and into the tumor. You may feel pressure when the needles are being placed. The markers are in the needle and are pushed into place using image guidance . After each marker has been put into place the needle is removed.

At least three fiducial markers will be placed and your healthcare provider will let you know how many markers you will have. The number of markers used depends on the type and place of the tumor. The fiducial markers are often placed in different areas of the tumor. This helps the therapists position you correctly using the markers.

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Frequent Urination Burning With Urination And Difficulty Urinating

These are the most common complaints. Occasionally the urinary stream will weaken. Generally these symptoms are managed with medications to help the bladder function better or eliminate burning. Rarely, your doctor may order a urine test. Symptoms will resolve after the end of treatment. Contact your doctor if you see blood in your urine or if you are unable to urinate.

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If This Uncertainty Would Bother You So Much That It Would Affect Your Quality Of Life Surgery May Be A Better Option For You Phuoc Tran Md Phd

Cureus

However, if youre okay with waiting for the PSA nadir, and if you dont mind getting treatment over the course of a few weeks instead of in one operation, then radiation may be ideal for you.

What are my options?

Conventional external-beam radiation therapy is given in little doses, a few minutes a day, five days a week, for seven or eight weeks. These small doses minimize the injury risk for the healthy tissue near the tumor. Scientists measure radiation in units called Gy . Most men get a minimum total dose of 75.6 Gy, but could get as much as 81 Gy this works out to 2 Gy or less per day.

The treatment itself is painless just like getting an x-ray at the dentists office. But one big challenge with getting repeated treatments is making sure youre always in the exact same position, so the radiation can hit the target the way its supposed to. Thus, you will be custom-fitted with your own pelvic immobilization device, which will not only keep you from fidgeting, but will make sure youre not slightly higher and to the right on the table one day, and slightly lower and to the left the next.

When you get fitted for your device, you will have a CT scan, so doctors can get a 3D look at your prostate. Then, when you get the radiation, you wont just get it from one side, but from multiple directions, and each beam of radiation will be individually shaped to target the cancer and a 5- to 10-millimeter margin of healthy tissue around the prostate.

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Swelling Bruising Or Tenderness Of The Scrotum

Symptoms generally resolve on their own within three to five days. Oral anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen are usually sufficient for pain relief, if necessary. You should avoid hot tubs and Jacuzzis for at least two to three days after the procedure. Postpone bike riding until the tenderness is gone.

Faq: Radiation Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Why would I choose radiation therapy?

Radiation therapy, including external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy, is an alternative form of treatment for prostate cancer. EBRT may be used after other treatments, such as surgery, to manage cancer that has recurred or is at high risk of recurrence. Radiation therapy has an excellent record of success, providing long-term disease control and survival rates equivalent to other treatments, including surgery.

How should I expect to feel during radiation therapy?

Undergoing external beam radiation therapy is similar to having a routine X-ray. Radiation cannot be seen, smelled or felt. Generally, side effects don’t appear until the second or third week of treatment. Because radiation therapy is a local treatment, only the areas of the body where it is directed will experience side effects. Most patients will experience some or all of the following:

  • Increase in the frequency of urination
  • Urinary urgency
  • Softer and smaller volume bowel movements
  • Increased frequency of bowel movements
  • Worsening of hemorrhoids or rectal irritation with occasional scant blood and fatigue

Many questions may arise during radiation therapy treatment. Your doctors will be available to answer questions throughout your treatment.

How should I expect to feel after radiation therapy?

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How Should You Prepare For Fiducial Marker Placement

When prepping to have your fiducial markers placed you will be asked to do a few things. They may include:

  • Stopping certain medications. Examples: Aspirin, ibuprofen, steroids, vitamin E, or blood thinners. Make sure your provider is aware of all medications and supplements you are taking.
  • Doing an enema to clean out your bowels the morning of your procedure.
  • On the day of your procedure, you may need to take an antibiotic to prevent infection.
  • You can usually eat and drink like normal on the day of your procedure.

The prep needed depends on where your fiducials markers are being placed. Your provider will talk to you about the specific prep you need to do.

How Do They Put Markers In For Prostate Radiation

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To effectively treat prostate cancer, doctors need an accurate view of the prostate gland during radiation therapy. To help improve this view, doctors may insert gold markers called fiducials into the prostate by placing hollow gold needles through the rectum and moving a fiducial through each needle.

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The Process For Implanting Prostate Seeds

  • Step 1: The first step in the process is an outpatient consultation with a Princeton Radiation Oncology radiation oncologist. Your radiation oncologist will advise on the implant option based on your PSA, Gleason score, tumor stage, and other factors.
  • Step 2: The second step is a planning transrectal ultrasound . We place a transducer in the rectum and obtain images of the prostate gland in 5mm segments. Once the prostate is visualized, your Princeton Radiation Oncology radiation oncologist works with the radiation physicists to determine precisely where the seeds should be placed. Using a treatment-planning computer, we generate a series of dose maps called isodose curves. Our goal is to deliver a radiation dose of 150-160 Gy to the prostate with Iodine and approximately 120 Gy with palladium seeds . We peripherally load the seeds to minimize the radiation dose to the centrally located urethra. This will minimize the risk of urinary side effects.
  • Step 3: The third step is the implant procedure, which our doctors perform in the operating room while youre under either general or spinal anesthesia. Under transrectal ultrasound guidance, the prostate is implanted through the perineum with needles loaded with radioactive seeds. Fluoroscopy confirms the seed placement into the prostate. After the procedure, well monitor you for several hours. Typically, we discharge patients to home on the same day.

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