Tuesday, November 22, 2022

Why Do You Get Prostate Cancer

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How Do You Control Urine After Prostate Surgery

Sciences proves that ejaculating more often reduces your risk of CANCER?! A Urologist explains

Kegels may be your answer! As mentioned above, kegels are a common treatment option for incontinence after prostate surgery. Among other things, the pelvic floor muscles help control bladder and bowel function and, like other muscles of the body, if they get weak they are no longer able to do their job effectively.

Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer

Your treatment options will depend on the stage of your cancer, medical history, and other factors. If you have low-grade prostate cancer, you might not need to undergo immediate treatment. Some people dont need treatment at all and just have to monitor their symptoms and attend regularly scheduled appointments to detect if the cancer is progressing. This is known as active surveillance and observation.

Surgery could be the right choice for you if the cancer is only located in the prostate gland. Two types of surgery include:

  • Retropubic surgery The surgeon makes one long incision in the abdomen to remove the prostate gland.

  • Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy The surgeon inserts a mechanical device through several small incisions in the abdomen. The instruments attached to the device remove the prostate gland. This is the more common technique used for most types of prostate cancer.

  • Other medical conditions you have

  • Your feelings about beginning treatment immediately

  • Your doctors opinion about beginning treatment immediately

  • Stage and grade of the cancer

  • Likelihood of curing or managing your cancer

  • Possible side effects

You dont have to decide what to do at your appointment. Although you might not be able to wait that long, you should give yourself at least some time to consider all your options and make the choice thats best for you. You might even be able to seek a second opinion.

What Types Of Hormone Therapy Are Used For Prostate Cancer

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can block the production or use of androgens . Currently available treatments can do so in several ways:

  • reducing androgen production by the testicles
  • blocking the action of androgens throughout the body
  • block androgen production throughout the body

Treatments that reduce androgen production by the testicles are the most commonly used hormone therapies for prostate cancer and the first type of hormone therapy that most men with prostate cancer receive. This form of hormone therapy includes:

Treatments that block the action of androgens in the body are typically used when ADT stops working. Such treatments include:

Treatments that block the production of androgens throughout the body include:

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What Are The Side Effects Of Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Because androgens affect many other organs besides the prostate, ADT can have a wide range of side effects , including:

  • loss of interest in sex
  • Studer UE, Whelan P, Albrecht W, et al. Immediate or deferred androgen deprivation for patients with prostate cancer not suitable for local treatment with curative intent: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 30891. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006 24:18681876.

  • Zelefsky MJ, Eastham JA, Sartor AO. Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. In: Vincent T. DeVita J, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 9e. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011.

  • Smith MR, Saad F, Chowdhury S, et al. Apalutamide and overall survival in prostate cancer. European Urology 2021 79:150158.

  • How To Prepare For Your Appointment

    What Causes Prostate Cancer?

    Make an appointment with your family doctor if your symptoms arent concerning or causing problems in your daily life. They will refer you to a urologist if they suspect you might have prostate cancer.

    Since this can be a scary and overwhelming experience, you must prepare in advance so you know what you should do before the appointment and dont forget to ask specific questions:

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    Bladder And Urinary Troubles

    A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.

    One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.

    Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:

    • urinating more frequently
    • getting up in the middle of the night to pee
    • having blood in your urine or semen
    • feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything

    Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.

    Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:

    • stomach pain

    Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Early prostate cancer is often present without any obvious symptoms. However, if you have any of the symptoms listed below, make an appointment with your doctor.

    Dysuria difficulty and pain passing urine

    Urgency- difficult to postpone passing urine

    Frequency- going to the toilet more frequently than before

    Nocturia- getting up more than twice a night to pass urine

    Hesitancy- taking time to get going when passing urine

    Flow- has become weak or intermittent

    Incomplete emptying feeling that the bladder has not emptied

    Blood-present in the urine

    Trouble having or keeping an erection

    Lower back pain or pain in hips or upper thighs.

    It is important to note that the prostate enlarges with age. It wraps around the urethra and this enlargement can cause bladder outlet obstruction which can lead to the above symptoms. BPH is more common than prostate cancer but the conditions may exist together. BPH is not cancerous but can be troublesome.

    Click here for more information about the symptoms of prostate cancer.

    What to do

    If you experience any of the listed symptoms:

    If discovered early, prostate cancer can be treated successfully.

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    Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series

    We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.

    Why Do Some Men Get Prostate Cancer

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    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in men. Prostate cancer is a disease defined by the abnormal growth of cells. These abnormal cells can proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, if left untreated, form tumors which may metastasize or spread to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer has the potential to grow and spread quickly, but for most men, it is a relatively slow growing disease.

    For men who suspect that they might have prostate cancer, it is very important to understand the risk factors and symptoms. Knowing where the prostate is located in the body, and the functions of the prostate will explain the impacts of prostate cancer and prostate cancer treatment. Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer need to discuss with their doctors their particular type, aggressive or non-aggressive, of prostate cancer. This will allow the patient, working with their doctor to determine the most effective treatment for their cancer.

    The prostate cells produce an enzyme named Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA, found in a man’s blood. PSA is produced exclusively by prostate cells. Elevated levels of the PSA enzyme can be helpful in diagnosing issues with the prostate, like cancer or infection. These elevated levels of PSA can be detected with a simple blood test. For more information, visit our page on PSA.

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    How Are Prostate Problems Treated

    Treatment depends on which kind of prostate problem you develop.

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia needs treatment only if the urinary symptoms become bothersome. BPH often responds to drugs that either:

    • Relieve the tension around the urethra
    • Reduce the size of the prostate itself

    The FDA is revising labels on several BPH drugs Proscar, Avodart, and Jalyn to include a warning that the drugs may be linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.

    If medication does not relieve the symptoms, surgery may be required. Several herbs showed promise as treatment for BPH in some studies, but results are incomplete or conflicting. These include saw palmetto, beta-sitosterol, and Pygeum africanum.

    Prostate cancer treatment is complex. When designing a prostate cancer treatment plan, doctors consider a mans age, overall health, and how aggressive or widespread the prostate cancer is. All mens cancer is unique, and their treatment will be unique. Some treatment options include:

    • No treatment

    What Is The Prostate

    The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis, found only in men.

    About the size of a satsuma, it’s located between the penis and the bladder, and surrounds the urethra.

    The main function of the prostate is to produce a thick white fluid that creates semen when mixed with the sperm produced by the testicles.

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    Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Symptoms of prostate cancer do not usually appear until the prostate is large enough to affect the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the penis .

    When this happens, you may notice things like:

    • an increased need to pee
    • straining while you pee
    • a feeling that your bladder has not fully emptied

    These symptoms should not be ignored, but they do not mean you have prostate cancer.

    It’s more likely they’re caused by something else, such as prostate enlargement.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

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    In most cases, prostate cancer causes no symptoms.

    In rare cases, men may experience certain symptoms when they have advanced prostate cancer. However, these symptoms are also present in many men who do not have cancer, so it is best to discuss them with a doctor before jumping to any conclusions. Some of these symptoms can include difficulty emptying the bladder, blood in the urine, and bone pains.

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    How Can I Reduce The Risk Of Getting Prostate Cancer

    You may help to reduce your risk and look after your health generally by:

    Maintaining a healthy weight by combining a balanced, low fat diet with regular physical activity.

    Doing regular exercise Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five times or more a week. The more active you are, the more you can reduce the risk.

    What Causes Prostate Cancer

    Researchers do not know exactly what causes prostate cancer. But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells.

    On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look.

    Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:

    • Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
    • Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

    Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control.

    DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a persons lifetime.

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    How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

    Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.

    Screening tests for prostate cancer include:

    • Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
    • Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
    • Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.

    There Are Alternatives To Surgery

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    Rather than selecting surgery for prostate problems like BPH, men should consider alternative treatments that carry fewer risks. Some treatments, like consuming remedies like Prostara, are simple. However, more extreme measures are sometimes required. In such cases, there are a multitude of options to consider besides surgery, including:

    • Transurethral Needle Ablation
    • Holmium Laser Ablation of the Prostate
    • Interstitial Laser Therapy
    • Prostatic Urethral Lift as a result of prostate surgery because

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    Prostate Cancer Can Cause Pain In Many Areas And Not Just Because Of Bone Spread But Also Due To Other Features Of The Disease

    It can feel different ways depending on the nature of the cause.

    Curable early stage prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, says Sean Cavanaugh, MD, Chief of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southeastern Regional Medical Center.

    That is the most important message do not use pain as a primary screening mechanism for prostate cancer.

    Most pain associated with prostate cancer is from bone metastases in stage IV disease.

    For example, men with bone metastases to their spine may have pain in their back.

    Prostate cancer can spread to the ribs , pelvis and femur .

    Even shoulder and arm pain are possible when a metastatic tumor is pressing against the spine.

    Bone metastases occur in approximately 80% of patients with advanced prostate cancer, says the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

    When prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes first to the bones.

    Bone pain from prostate cancer can feel like a dull ache or feel like a toothache in the bones, or you may feel a sharper sensation.

    Can worsen with movement

    May come and go or be constant

    Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented

    There are no clear prevention strategies for prostate cancer. There is some conflicting evidence that a healthy diet composed of low fat, high vegetables and fruits may help reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Routine screening, with PSA blood test and physical exam, is important to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. A healthy diet and regular exercise are also critical in maintaining good health and preventing disease in general.

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    Family History And Genes

    Your risk of prostate cancer is higher if you have a close relative, such as a brother or father, who has had prostate cancer.

    Some inherited genes can increase your risk of prostate cancer. These inherited genes are rare and account for only a small number of prostate cancers.

    The risk increases by up to 5 times in men with the gene BRCA2. And the risk might increase with the BRCA1 gene. These genes also cause breast and ovarian cancers.

    Men with a rare syndrome called Lynch syndrome have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer and some other cancers. A change in one of the genes that fixes mistakes in DNA causes this syndrome eg. MSH2 and MLH1 genes.

    Researchers are looking into other genes that might also increase the risk of prostate cancer.

    Risk Factors And Causes Of Prostate Cancer

    What You Need to Know About Prostate Cancer

    Researchers are unsure of the exact causes of prostate cancer. They have found possible risk factors and how they could lead to the development of cancerous cells. When cancer forms in the prostate, its because of changes to the cells DNA. DNA makes up a persons genes and controls cells, deciding when they divide, grow, and die.

    There have been studies of other possible risk factors with inconsistent results, such as:

    There is ongoing research to determine the exact risk factors and causes of prostate cancer. If one or more of the factors above apply to you, theres a chance you might not develop the disease. Nothing has been proven yet. If youre worried about your risk of getting prostate cancer, you could consult with your doctor about making changes to your lifestyle.

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    How Common Is Prostate Cancer

    About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.

    Surgery To Remove Your Prostate Gland

    You might have surgery to remove your prostate gland if:

    • your cancer hasn’t spread outside the prostate gland
    • you are younger and have a fast growing tumour
    • as part of treatment for locally advanced or high risk localised prostate cancer

    The aim of a radical prostatectomy operation is to cure prostate cancer. It is major surgery with some possible side effects. If you’re an older man with a slow growing prostate cancer, this type of surgery may not be necessary for you. This is because your cancer might grow so slowly that you’re more likely to die of old age or other causes than from prostate cancer.

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