When To Seek Medical Care
A person may have urinary symptoms unrelated to prostatitis that are caused by bladder problems, UTIs, or benign prostatic hyperplasia. Symptoms of prostatitis also can signal more serious conditions, including prostate cancer.
Men with symptoms of prostatitis should see a health care provider.
Men with the following symptoms should seek immediate medical care:
- complete inability to urinate
- great discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen and urinary tract
What Does The Prostate Gland Do And Why Is It Important
The prostate is responsible for producing prostatic fluid, which is full of enzymes, proteins, and minerals that are vital for the proper functioning of sperm.
During climax, smooth muscle fibers of the stroma contract, forcing the prostatic fluid through the ejaculatory ducts and into the urethra.
In the urethra, the prostatic fluid mixes with fluid from the seminal vesicle, sperm from the testes, and secretions from the bulbourethral gland, a pea-sized gland below the prostate.
In all, prostatic fluid makes up 20 to 30 percent of semen .
Aside from producing prostatic fluid, the prostate is responsible for closing up the urethra during ejaculation so that semen doesn’t enter the bladder. During urination, the muscles of the central zone close the prostate’s seminal ducts so that urine cannot enter the prostate.
Clinical Relevance Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the increase in size of the prostate, without the presence of malignancy. It is much more common with advancing age, although initial histological evidence of hyperplasia may be evident from much earlier ages .
The enlarged prostate may compress the urethra, resulting in symptoms that refer to impaired storage of urine and symptoms that refer to impaired voiding .
BPH is usually caused by hyperplasia of the glands from the transitional zone of the prostate.
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How Will My Veterinarian Get These Samples
A free-flow urine sample iscollected . Samples of prostatic fluid are obtained by passing a urethral catheter to the level of the prostate and massaging the prostate to milk fluid out of it.
Samples of prostatic cells are obtained by fine needle aspiration or biopsy. If the prostate is greatly enlarged, it may be sampled by through the body wall by FNA or biopsied. FNA involves taking a small needle with a syringe and suctioning a sample of cells directly from the prostate and placing them on a microscope slide. A veterinary pathologist then examines the slide under a microscope. In some cases, results from FNA may not be entirely clear and biopsy may be necessary.
How Does The Prostate Play A Role In Male Fertility
The prostate gland is essential for reproduction and male fertility due to the prostatic fluid it produces.
The components of the prostatic fluid ensure that sperm is healthy and is able to fertilize eggs. Prominent components of prostatic fluid include:
- The enzyme prostate-specific antigen , which thins or loosens up semen so that sperm can travel more freely
- Prostatic acid phosphatase, an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of energy-rich compounds present in seminal fluid and may also increase sperm’s motility
- Citric acid, which may help maintain osmotic-electrolytic equilibrium in semen
- Zinc, which is important for semen coagulation
- Spermine, which is ultimately responsible for semen’s unique odor and may play a role in sperm motility and helping sperm fertilize eggs, according to an article published in Endocrine Reviews.
- Prostatic inhibin, or prostatic secretory protein, a protein that plays a role in regulating cell growth
Additionally, prostatic fluid is alkaline , and research published in July 2015 in the journal PLoS One suggested that the pH level of sperm can play a role in reproduction, helping maintain the viability of sperm and successful fertilization.
Infertility may develop if there are changes to the composition or secretion of the prostatic fluid.
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The Psa Test Can Help Diagnose Prostate Cancer
To rule out prostate cancer, your GP usually suggests that you have a PSA test. This is a blood test that measures the level of a protein called Prostate specific antigen . PSA is produced in the prostate gland and found in small amounts in the blood.
A raised PSA level can be a warning sign of the presence of prostate cancer and other problems.
A raised PSA level can be a warning sign of the presence of prostate cancer. It can also indicate other problems that aren’t cancer – three out of four men with a raised PSA level will not have prostate cancer. PSA levels can also be normal when a cancer is present. This is why PSA is not used as a general screening test. However, the higher the PSA level, the greater the likelihood of a cancer being present.
How Is Prostatic Disease Diagnosed
The first step in diagnosis is to determine if the prostate is enlarged. To do this, your veterinarian will attempt to palpate the prostate either through the abdominal wall or during a rectal exam. Radiographs or an ultrasound examination may be required to diagnose an enlarged prostate gland.
“Several tests will be needed to determine the exact cause of a particular patient’s condition”
Because there are many diseases of the prostate, it is necessary to perform several tests to determine the exact cause of a particular patient’s condition. These tests may include:
- culture of the dog’s urine to determine if there is a bacterial infection,
- a microscopic examination of the cells in the urine, and
- a microscopic examination of the cells in prostatic fluid or in the prostate.
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Diet May Affect The Prostate Gland
To maintain a healthy prostate gland, try to eat a balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. There is no convincing evidence that any particular foods will definitely reduce your risk of prostate cancer but some studies have shown benefit from:
â¢ Eating selenium
There is some evidence that selenium, a trace mineral, helps lower the risk of prostate cancer by combating cell damage. Selenium is found in broccoli, Brazil nuts, seafood, asparagus, brown rice and onions. Selenium can also be taken in supplement form and works best when combined with vitamin E and zinc.
â¢ Following a mediterranean diet
Mediterranean men have a lower prostate cancer rate and this is believed to be down to a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, garlic, olive oil, fish and tomatoes. Tomatoes contain a bright red pigment called lycopene, a powerful carotenoid antioxidant, which helps to repair damaged cells.
According to an American study of 47,000 men over six years, those who had at least 10 servings a week of tomato-based foods were up to 45 per cent less likely to develop prostate cancer.
Prostate Specific Antigen Testing
Prostate Specific Antigen is a protein made by the cells in your prostate. Your PSA levels can be measured using a blood test and give an indication of your prostate health.
A PSA test isnt a test for cancer. Higher levels of PSA might indicate prostate cancer, but a high reading could also be caused by other conditions. It is also possible to have low level readings and have prostate cancer. This means that a PSA test isnt enough to definitively diagnose or rule out prostate cancer. Your PSA levels can vary, so your doctor might run this test a few times to compare your results and help determine your risk of prostate cancer.
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How Might An Enlarged Prostate Affect My Life
Having an enlarged prostate affects men in different ways. Some men can manage mild symptoms and dont need treatment. Other men find they need to stay near a toilet. This can make it difficult to work, drive, be outdoors and attend social events. If you need the toilet a lot during the night, this can affect your sleep and make you feel more tired during the day.
Some men with an enlarged prostate find their symptoms improve over time without treatment. But for most, the symptoms will stay the same or slowly start to cause more problems over time unless they have treatment.
Ruling Out Prostate Cancer
Symptoms of BPH can be scary because some of them are the same as those for prostate cancer. But an enlarged prostate is much more common than prostate cancer. And if you have BPH, you are no more likely than other men to develop prostate cancer. Because the two conditions share some symptoms and can occur at the same time, however, your doctor will need to evaluate you.
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How Do I Keep My Prostate Healthy
There are five measures to improved prostate health.
Treatment For Prostate Disease
Treatment for prostatitis may include antibacterial drugs and supportive treatments, depending on the type of prostatitis.Treatment for BPH may include medications to relax the smooth muscle of the gland or to shrink the size of the prostate, and surgery to produce a permanently widened channel in the part of the urethra that passes through the prostate.Treatment for prostate cancer is tailored to suit individual circumstances. The nature of the cancer, other health problems the person may have, and their wishes will all be taken into account.Management approaches for prostate cancer include:
- active surveillance
- surgery for example, prostatectomy
- ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound and NanoKnife®
- hormone treatment
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What Is A Prostate Tumor
A prostate tumor is an abnormal cell growth discovered on or in the prostate. While many assume that the presence of a tumor in the male reproductive system indicates the presence of prostate cancer, that is not always the case. However, physicians tend to take the presence of a prostate tumor seriously, and often order a biopsy so that the current status of the growth can be determined and treated accordingly.
There are actually three basic types of tumors of the prostate. A benign tumor is a mass that is self-contained. That is, the tumor does not appear to be consuming surrounding tissue and has not begun to spread to other parts of the body. This is the least dangerous of any type of prostate tumor, although physicians will sometimes order the removal of the growth or at least monitor it very closely.
The precancerous tumor is a growth that is not currently exhibiting any characteristics associated with cancer. The tumor is not currently spreading through the system and has not yet begun to damage surrounding organs. However, the rapid growth of the tumor along with other warning signs indicates there is a strong chance that cancer will develop in the short term.
What Is The Normal Prostate Size
A small prostate has a volume of 30 ml to 40 ml and a weight of 20 g to 70 g. A medium prostate has a volume of 40 ml to 80 ml and a weight of 20 g to 125g . A large prostate has a volume of 40ml to 100 ml and a weight of 40 g to 125 g.
Around age 40, prostate gland begins to grow. With a benign prostatic hyperplasia , glands size can increase by 4 to 5 times compared to its initial size.
Détection précoce du cancer de la prostate, Actualisation du référentiel de pratiques de lexamen périodique de santé , document PDF , HAS, mai 2013
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Who Is More Likely To Develop Prostatitis
The factors that affect a mans chances of developing prostatitis differ depending on the type.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Men with nerve damage in the lower urinary tract due to surgery or trauma may be more likely to develop chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Psychological stress may also increase a mans chances of developing the condition.
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Men with lower UTIs may be more likely to develop bacterial prostatitis. UTIs that recur or are difficult to treat may lead to chronic bacterial prostatitis.
If You Want To Get In Front Of Prostate Symptoms Or Get Relief From Existing Prostate Symptoms What Can You Do
There are a couple of things.
1) You can have more sex
Yep, the prostate gland is a male reproductive organ. Its main function is to secrete prostate fluid, which is one of the components of semen. The muscles of the prostate gland also help propel this seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.
Scientists found that men who ejaculated 21 or more times a month enjoyed a 33% lower risk of prostate cancer compared with men who reported four to seven ejaculations a month throughout their lifetimes.
2) Take a legitimate 5–reductase inhibitor
Perhaps the best 5-AR inhibitor weve found is extremely popular in Europe. Its widely prescribed by Urologists there for prostate health/symptom relief.
It’s called Serenoa Repens, which is the fancy name for Saw Palmetto . Most guys have heard of SP. They may have even tried it.
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Blood And Lymphatic Vessels
The prostate receives blood through the inferior vesical artery, internal pudendal artery, and middle rectal arteries. These vessels enter the prostate on its outer posterior surface where it meets the bladder, and travel forward to the apex of the prostate. Both the inferior vesical and the middle rectal arteries often arise together directly from the internal iliac arteries. On entering the bladder, the inferior vesical artery splits into a urethral branch, supplying the urethral prostate and a capsular branch, which travels around the capsule and has smaller branches which perforate into the prostate.
The veins of the prostate form a network the prostatic venous plexus, primarily around its front and outer surface. This network also receives blood from the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and is connected via branches to the vesical plexus and internal pudendal veins. Veins drain into the vesical and then internal iliac veins.
The lymphatic drainage of the prostate depends on the positioning of the area. Vessels surrounding the vas deferens, some of the vessels in the seminal vesicle, and a vessel from the posterior surface of the prostate drain into the external iliac lymph nodes. Some of the seminal vesicle vessels, prostatic vessels, and vessels from the anterior prostate drain into internal iliac lymph nodes. Vessels of the prostate itself also drain into the obturator and sacral lymph nodes.
Microscopic glands of the prostate
Gene And Protein Expression
About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal prostate. About 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being highly prostate specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and secretory cells of the prostatic gland and have functions that are important for the characteristics of semen. Some of the prostate specific proteins, such as the prostate specific antigen , and the Prostatic acid phosphatase.
In the developing embryo, at the hind end lies an inpouching called the cloaca. This, over the fourth to the seventh week, divides into a urogenital sinus and the beginnings of the anal canal, with a wall forming between these two inpouchings called the urorectal septum. The urogenital sinus divides into three parts, with the middle part forming the urethra the upper part is largest and becomes the urinary bladder, and the lower part then changes depending on the biological sex of the embryo.
What Exams Tests And Procedures Diagnose Bph
A physical exam is required to see if other medical problems may be causing your BPH symptoms. The healthcare provider will order a digital rectal exam to examine the prostate gland. The healthcare provider may feel the prostate by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum. The rectal exam allows your doctor to roughly estimate the size and consistency of the prostate. Most importantly, it allows the doctor to feel for lumps or hard areas that could indicate the presence of prostate cancer. Your doctor may check your urine for blood or signs of infection. Your blood may be tested for kidney problems , for PSA levels , a screening test for enlarged prostate, prostate cancer, prostatitis, and urinary tract infections
Some men are referred to a specialist for further tests. Urologists specialize in diseases of the male and female urinary tracts and of the male genital tract. Before you are treated for BPH. It is important for the doctor to rule out other possible causes of an enlarged prostate, such as prostate cancer, which is benign or non-cancerous.
Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy
A transrectal ultrasound creates an image of organs in the patients pelvis. It is typically used to evaluate the prostate gland in men with elevated prostate specific antigen , or as further exploration when the Urologist detects prostatic nodules by digital rectal exam. The ultrasound images may reveal prostate cancer, benign enlarged prostate or prostatitis. Ultrasound can also help guide a biopsy of the prostate.
A transrectal ultrasound is typically performed in an outpatient setting. The Urologist will collect between six to twelve tissue samples with a small needle. While patients often report physical discomfort , the procedure usually only lasts about a half hour.
Following the procedure, complications include blood in the urine for several days, some bleeding in the stool for a few days, and blood in the ejaculate for a few weeks.
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