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Is Prostate Cancer More Common Than Breast Cancer

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Cancer Incidence And Death Rates By Sex And World Region

Prostate Cancer is More Common Than Breast Cancer | This Morning

Worldwide, the incidence rate for all cancers combined was 19% higher in men than in women in 2020, although rates varied widely across regions. Among men, incidence rates ranged almost 5-fold, from 494.2 per 100,000 in Australia/New Zealand to 100.6 per 100,000 in Western Africa among women, rates varied nearly 4-fold, from 405.2 per 100,000 in Australia/New Zealand to 102.5 per 100,000 in South Central Asia. These variations largely reflect differences in exposure to risk factors and associated cancers and barriers to high-quality cancer prevention and early detection. For example, the highest overall incidence rates in Australia/New Zealand are caused in part by an elevated risk of NMSC because most of the population is light-skinned, and excessive sun exposure is prevalent, in conjunction with increased detection of the disease.

The gender gap for overall cancer mortality worldwide is twice that for incidence, with death rates 43% higher in men than in women , partly because of differences in the distribution of the cancer types. Death rates per 100,000 persons varied from 165.6 per 100,000 in Eastern Europe to 70.2 per 100,000 in Central America among men and from 118.3 per 100,000 in Melanesia to 63.1 per 100,000 in Central America and South Central Asia among women. Notably, the cumulative risk of dying from cancer among women in 2020 was higher in Eastern Africa than in Northern America , Western Europe , and Australia/New Zealand .

CANCER SITE

Lung cancer

Aggressive Prostate Cancer Subtype More Common Than Expected

t-SCNC is diagnosed by its appearance under the microscope. Compared with adenocarcinoma , t-SCNC cells are smaller and more crowded together.

The researchers also found genetic differences between t-SCNC and the adenocarcinoma subtype, which accounts for most prostate cancers at diagnosis. Taking advantage of these unique features may improve the diagnosis and treatment of t-SCNC, said lead investigator Rahul Aggarwal, M.D., of the University of California, San Francisco.

The study was published July 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

The fact that nearly 20% had this subtype is a surprise, said William Dahut, M.D., head of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Research Section of NCIs Center for Cancer Research. Thats a greater percentage than we thought.

This finding could lead to clinical trials specifically for men with this subtype of prostate cancer, Dr. Dahut added.

So Why Is The Number Of Men Dying From Prostate Cancer Increasing

As our population grows and people live longer, more and more people will be diagnosed with cancer.

Prostate cancer is primarily a disease of older men. Those aged 50 and above are significantly more likely to be diagnosed with it. In 2015, the disease was most common in men aged 65-69.

If more men are being diagnosed, then sadly this can mean that more men will die. In recent years, survival rates have increased significantly thanks to a heightened awareness among men, the development of new treatments and the availability of new tools that can diagnose the disease earlier.

However, breast cancer research has traditionally received significantly more funding than prostate cancer research, and the latest figures have led to calls for more studies in this area to tackle the increase in deaths.

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Correlative Studies Linking Lymph Node Metastasis With The Lymphangiogenic Axis In Human Prostate Cancer

A number of clinical studies have examined the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and prostate cancer lymph node metastasis . These studies produced conflicting results. Although some detected lymphangiogenesis in prostate cancer tissues, which were correlated with lymph node metastasis, others failed to observe such a correlation. Interestingly, most of these studies have observed increased expression of VEGF-C in tumor tissues of prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. The major point of dispute has been whether the increased expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors and their receptors, such as VEGFR-3, in prostate cancer tissues induced lymphangiogenesis for lymph node metastasis, or whether they might facilitate increased invasion of tumor cells into lymphatic vessels. Thus, we will discuss the major findings of each study and attempt to reconcile these conflicting results.

Global Cancer Statistics : Globocan Estimates Of Incidence And Mortality Worldwide For 36 Cancers In 185 Countries

Cancer statistics, 2020

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

Corresponding Author: Freddie Bray, BSc, MSc, PhD, Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150, cours Albert Thomas, F-69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France .

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

Corresponding Author: Freddie Bray, BSc, MSc, PhD, Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150, cours Albert Thomas, F-69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France .

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Mechanisms Of Lymph Node Metastasis

Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels serve as a route for lymph node metastasis

Lymph node. Metastases of tumor cells through lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes.

Local extension of tumor cells from the primary tumor into the surrounding lymphatics through a process called permeation is one means through which tumor cells can enter into the lymphatic vessels . In addition, tumor cells can be stimulated by cytokines produced by the lymphatic vessels, which promote chemotactic diffusion of tumor cells into the lymphatics . Finally, many tumors have the ability to secrete growth factors that induce the growth of new lymphatic vessels from a precursor, a process called lymphangiogenesis .

Are You At Risk For Prostate Cancer

Any man can get prostate cancer, but these factors increase your risk:

  • Age: Your chances of developing prostate cancer go up as you get older. Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 40. But 6 in 10 men older than 65 have the disease.

  • Ethnicity and race: For unknown reasons, Black men and Caribbean men of African ancestry are more likely to get prostate cancer at a young age. This cancer also tends to be more aggressive, which means it may spread to other parts of the body. Asian-American, Hispanic, and Latino men are less likely to get prostate cancer.

  • Family history: Having a first-degree relative with prostate cancer doubles your risk of getting the disease. Still, many men with prostate cancer have no family history of the disease.

  • Genetic changes: Some men inherit changes in genes linked to prostate cancer. These include mutated breast cancer genes and Lynch syndrome .

  • Smoking: Smokers may have double the risk of prostate cancer.

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Family History Of Prostate Cancer Seems To Increase Breast Cancer Risk

About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are thought to be hereditary, caused by abnormal genes passed from parent to child.

Genes are particles in cells, contained in chromosomes, made of DNA . DNA contains the instructions for building proteins. And proteins control the structure and function of all the cells that make up your body.

Think of your genes as an instruction manual for cell growth and function. Abnormalities in the DNA are like typographical errors. They may provide the wrong set of instructions, leading to faulty cell growth or function. In any one person, if there is an error in a gene, that same mistake will appear in all the cells that contain the same gene. This is like having an instruction manual in which all the copies have the same typographical error.

A study suggests that women with first-degree relatives who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer probably have a higher risk of breast cancer.

The research was published online on March 9, 2015 by the journal Cancer. Read the abstract of Familial clustering of breast and prostate cancer and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the Womens Health Initiative Study.

In this study, the researchers looked at the records of 78,171 women in the WHI Observational Study who had never been diagnosed with breast cancer when they enrolled in the study. By 2009, 3,506 breast cancers had been diagnosed in the women.

The results showed:

  • maintaining a healthy weight

Prostate Cancer Kills More People Than Breast Cancer For First Time New Figures Reveal

Sepsis causes more deaths than prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS combined, researchers say

Prostate cancer has overtaken breast cancer to become the third deadliest type of the disease in Britain, new research has found.

For the first time, figures show that more men are dying from prostate cancer than women from breast cancer, amid warnings from charities and health campaigners that more investment is needed.

The research, published today by Prostate Cancer UK, reveals that 11,819 men died of prostate cancer in 2015, the equivalent of one every 45 minutes, compared with 11,442 women who died of breast cancer.

To halt the rise, the charity estimates that more than £120m in research funding is needed to make sufficient advances in research, screening and treatment.

Although the mortality rate for breast cancer has continued to fall steadily since the Nineties, the number of men dying from prostate cancer has risen by more than 20 per cent during the same period.

Lung cancer and bowel cancer remain the deadliest cancers in the UK, with more than 50,000 people dying of the diseases annually.

Whilst welcoming advances in breast cancer treatment, Prostate Cancer UK said that levels of funding for prostate cancer had been significantly lower, meaning efforts to tackle the disease are trailing behind.

Since 2002, more than £520m has been invested in tackling breast cancer, more than double the amount received for prostate treatment and research.

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It Was Estimated That In :

  • 115,800 Canadian men would be diagnosed with cancer and 44,100 men would die from cancer.
  • 110,000 Canadian women would be diagnosed with cancer and 39,300 women would die from cancer.
  • On average, 617 Canadians would be diagnosed with cancer every day.
  • On average, 228 Canadians would die from cancer every day.
  • Lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer are the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer in Canada .
  • These 4 cancers account for about half of all new cancer cases.
  • Prostate cancer accounts for one-fifth of all new cancer cases in men.
  • Lung cancer accounts for 14% of all new cases of cancer.
  • Breast cancer accounts for one-quarter of all new cancer cases in women
  • Colorectal cancer accounts for 12% of all new cancer cases.

Lymphangiogenesis & Lymph Node Metastasis

During embryogenesis lymphatic vessels develop from blood vessels . Therefore, lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis are stimulated by the same family of growth factor proteins. VEGF-A/VPF is the most potent growth factor for angiogenesis . Other VEGF family members, such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are potent lymphangiogenic factors . Flt-4, also known as VEGF receptor-3 , is the tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF-C or -D in lymphatic endothelial cells. Upon activation, this receptor triggers signaling events to initiate the proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells . Neuropilin-2, a nontyrosine kinase receptor, is also expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and acts as a coreceptor for VEGF-C during lymphangiogenesis . Both VEGF-C and -D are expressed by tumor cells and, therefore, promote lymphangiogenesis from the tumor-associated surrounding lymphatics . Importantly, cancer cells have also been shown to express neuropilin-2 and/or VEGFR-3, thus suggesting autocrine regulation of lymphangogenic growth factors . Our laboratory has reported one such autocrine regulation of VEGF-C and its receptor neuropilin-2 in prostate cancer this autocrine function promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells during oxidative stress and, thereby, is important for metastatic progression .

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Brca Mutations More Common Than Thought In Older Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer

Even though they had no family history that would make them eligible for genetic testing, about 1 in 40 postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 65 had a mutation linked to cancer in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, a rate similar to Ashkenazi Jewish women, according to an analysis of data from the Womens Health Initiative.

This finding suggests that genetic testing may be beneficial for postmenopausal women who are newly diagnosed with breast cancer even if they dont have risk factors for inheriting a mutation linked to breast cancer.

The research was published on March 10, 2020, by the journal JAMA. Read the abstract of Prevalence of Pathogenic Variants in Cancer Susceptibility Genes Among Women With Postmenopausal Breast Cancer.

Cancer Incidence And Mortality Patterns By The 4

Prostate cancer kills more people than breast cancer for ...

Incidence rates increased with increasing HDI level, ranging from 104.3 and 128.0 per 100,000 in low HDI countries to 335.3 and 267.6 per 100,000 in very high HDI countries for men and women, respectively . Mortality rates are about 2-fold higher in higher HDI countries versus lower HDI countries in men, whereas little variation exists across HDI levels in women .

  • a Incidence excludes basal cell carcinoma, whereas mortality includes all types of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • Abbreviation: HDI, Human Development Index.

Figures and show cancer incidence and mortality ASRs in higher HDI versus lower HDI countries for men and women, respectively, in 2020. For incidence in men , lung cancer ranks first and prostate cancer ranks second in higher HDI countries, and vice versa for lower HDI countries . These cancers were followed by colorectal cancer in higher HDI countries, largely reflecting the substantial contribution by the United States, and lip and oral cavity cancer in lower HDI countries because of the high burden of the disease in India. In women , incidence rates for breast cancer far exceed those of other cancers in both transitioned and transitioning countries, followed by colorectal cancer in transitioned countries and cervical cancer in transitioning countries.

Figure 7

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The Signs Of Prostate Cancer

Caught an earlier stage increases the chances of beating it – which is why it’s vital to know the early warning signs.

Most men with early prostate cancer won’t notice any symptoms. That’s because the disease tends to grow in a part of the prostate that’s away from the urethra.

It’s only when the cancer is big enough to press on the tube that men tend to notice symptoms, including:

  • Trouble starting to pee
  • A slow flow when you pee
  • A feeling that your bladder hasn’t emptied properly
  • Dribbling after you finish peeing
  • Needing to pee more, especially at night
  • A sudden need to pee, sometimes leaking before getting to the loo
  • If prostate cancer breaks out of the gland and invades other parts of the body, it can cause other symptoms, including:

    • Back, hip or pelvis pain
    • Problems getting or keeping an erection
    • Blood in the urine or semen
    • Unexplained weight loss

    These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems, but itâs still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whatâs causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.

    It’s also useful to know the key risk factors – Orchidâs F.A.C.E. up to prostate cancer campaign is aimed at helping people remember…

    Family history â having a brother or father with prostate cancer may double a manâs risk compared to men with no family history of the disease.

    How Common Prostate Cancer Is

    In Ireland, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, after skin cancer. Every year, more than 3,890 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in this country. This means that 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. The number of men getting prostate cancer in Ireland is rising- between 1995 and 2007, the number of new cases more than doubled. Although there are many men with this disease, most men do not die from it.

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    Behind The Headlines: Prostate Cancer Now Kills More People Than Breast Cancer

    02 February 2018

    Todays headlines about prostate cancer overtaking breast cancer as the UKs third most common cause of cancer death certainly give pause for thought.

    New figures have revealed that 11,819 men died in the UK from prostate cancer in 2015, while 11,442 women died from breast cancer.

    Deaths from cancer can be measured in two ways by the actual number of people who die from particular type of the disease, or by the number who die per 100,000 people. The latter is known as the mortality rate.

    While the figures clearly show that more people are dying from prostate cancer than ever before, nationally the mortality rate actually decreased between 2010 and 2015 by 6%.

    The number of women who die from breast cancer is steadily decreasing, and the mortality rate is also decreasing, dropping by 10% in the same time period meaning that deaths from breast cancer are declining more quickly than deaths from prostate cancer.

    New Research Underway That Will Cut Deaths With Your Help

    Why prostate cancer now kills more than breast cancer

    Our chief executive, Angela Culhane, says: “Its incredibly encouraging to see the tremendous progress that has been made in breast cancer over recent years. But with half the investment and half the research, its not surprising that progress in prostate cancer is lagging behind.

    “The good news is that many of these developments could be applied to prostate cancer and were confident that with the right funding, we can dramatically reduce deaths within the next decade.”

    We believe we need to fund around £120 million of research over the next eight years to reverse the trend and achieve our 10-year goal to halve the number of expected prostate cancer deaths by 2026. And were asking the public to help raise the vital funds needed by signing up for one of our .

    “Plans to create an accurate test fit for use as part of a nationwide prostate cancer screening programme, as well as developing new treatments for advanced prostate cancer are already well underway. But to achieve these aims, we need to increase our investment in research.

    “Were calling on the nation to sign up to a March for Men and help us raise the funds we desperately need to stop prostate cancer being a killer.”

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