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How Do Know If You Have Prostate Cancer

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What Is The Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer

How do you know if you have prostate cancer?

Most of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from it. Other medical conditions along with prostate cancer can cause death.

Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years due to increased screening and treatment options. Ninety-nine percent of men with prostate cancer will survive for a minimum of five years after diagnosis.

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Detection Methods For Prostate Cancer

One early detection method is a simple blood test that measures prostate-specific antigen levels in the blood. A prostate biopsy, a method in which a tissue sample is extracted and examined, is another commonly used diagnostic method used for prostate cancer.

But now another diagnostic method is gaining more popularity: the prostate MRI. The MRI is a non-invasive, non-surgical method in which prostate cancer can be diagnosed with more detailed images of the prostate as opposed to other tests.

Is It Always Cancer

HOWEVER, as we said, most prostate tumors dont happen in the central gland, but in the peripheral zone. And this zone is far from the urethra.

So, many times, when we have these symptoms they are NOT because of cancer.

They are because of something else like benign prostatic hyperplasia . This disorder is way more frequent and many men suffer it after a certain age .

Whats more, pain and burn are also caused by prostatitis .

So how can we tell between cancer and the others ?

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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Symptoms of prostate cancer do not usually appear until the prostate is large enough to affect the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the penis .

When this happens, you may notice things like:

  • an increased need to pee
  • straining while you pee
  • a feeling that your bladder has not fully emptied

These symptoms should not be ignored, but they do not mean you have prostate cancer.

It’s more likely they’re caused by something else, such as prostate enlargement.

How The Prostate Changes As You Age

How To Know When You Have Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Symptoms ...

Because the prostate gland tends to grow larger with age, it may squeeze the urethra and cause problems in passing urine. Sometimes men in their 30s and 40s may begin to have these urinary symptoms and need medical attention. For others, symptoms arent noticed until much later in life. An infection or a tumor can also make the prostate larger. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have any of the urinary symptoms listed below.

Tell your doctor if you have these urinary symptoms:

  • Are passing urine more during the day
  • Have an urgent need to pass urine
  • Have less urine flow
  • Feel burning when you pass urine
  • Need to get up many times during the night to pass urine

Growing older raises your risk of prostate problems. The three most common prostate problems are inflammation , enlarged prostate , and prostate cancer.

One change does not lead to another. For example, having prostatitis or an enlarged prostate does not increase your risk of prostate cancer. It is also possible for you to have more than one condition at the same time.

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Surgery For Prostate Cancer

There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.

Side effects of surgery

Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you.

Can Prostate Cancer Treatment Affect Your Quality Of Life

Your age and overall health will make a difference in how treatment may affect your quality of life. Any health problems you have before youre treated, especially urinary, bowel or sexual function problems, will affect how you recover. Men can experience urinary incontinence or erectile dysfunction as a result of surgery or radiation therapy.

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The Symptom Overlap From An Enlarged Prostate And Prostate Cancer Are Nearly Identical As Far As Urine

Prostate cancer can masquerade as a benign enlarged prostate if the malignancy is still localized rather than spread.

First of all, the majority of patients who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have absolutely no symptoms, says Michael D. Lutz, MD, board certified urologist Partner at Michigan Institute of Urology President, MIU Mens Health Foundation.

The typical prostate cancer is diagnosed by the judicious use of the serum prostatic specific antigen blood test, continues Dr. Lutz.

Based upon this blood test result and a digital rectal examination, additional tests to confirm the diagnosis would be considered.

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How do I know whether I have aggressive prostate cancer?

At the start, prostate cancer does not cause symptoms. As cancer grows, you may have trouble urinating. Some men need to urinate often, especially at night. Others have pain or burning during urination, blood in the urine or semen, pain in the back, hips, or pelvis, and painful ejaculation.

To find out if these symptoms are caused by prostate cancer, your doctor will ask about your past medical problems and your family’s medical history. He or she will perform a physical exam. During the exam, your doctor will put a gloved finger into your rectum to feel your prostate for hard or lumpy areas.

Your doctor may also do a blood test to check the prostate-specific antigen level. PSA levels can be high in men with an enlarged prostate gland or with prostate cancer. You may also need an ultrasound exam that takes computer pictures of the prostate.

If tests show that you might have cancer, your doctor will want to confirm this with a biopsy. He or she will take out tiny pieces of the prostate to look for cancer cells. Your doctor may want to do a biopsy again to re-check the results.

Treatment for prostate cancer depends on whether cancer is in part or all of the prostate or if it has spread to other parts of the body. It also depends on your age and overall health. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment choice for you. You may want to ask another doctor for a second opinion.

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Does Prostate Cancer Have Any Symptoms

Most men with early prostate cancer dont have any signs or symptoms.

One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. Youll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through and presses against it, changing the way you urinate . But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesnt often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.

If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an enlarged prostate, or another health problem. But its still a good idea to get it checked out. Possible changes include:

  • difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
  • a weak flow when you urinate
  • a feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied properly
  • dribbling urine after you finish urinating
  • needing to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
  • a sudden need to urinate you may sometimes leak urine before you get to the toilet.

If prostate cancer breaks out of the prostate or spreads to other parts of the body , it can cause other symptoms, including:

  • back pain, hip pain or pelvis pain
  • problems getting or keeping an erection
  • blood in the urine or semen
  • unexplained weight loss.

These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems. But its still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whats causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.

What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get prostate cancer?
  • What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
  • Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
  • What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
  • If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
  • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
  • Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
  • Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
  • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.

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Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer

Check out this factsheet for a summary of the video.

Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. Diagnosing prostate cancer usually begins with a visit to your family doctor. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and do a physical exam. Based on this information, your doctor may refer you to a specialist called a urologist or order tests to check for prostate cancer or other health problems. A urologist is a doctor who specializes in treating conditions of the genital and urinary tracts, including the prostate.

The process of diagnosis may seem long and frustrating. It’s normal to worry, but try to remember that other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as prostate cancer. It’s important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

The following tests are usually used to rule out or diagnose prostate cancer. Many of the same tests used to diagnose cancer are used to find out the stage . Your doctor may also order other tests to check your general health and to help plan your treatment.

Risks And Causes Of Prostate Cancer

What Happens If You Have Prostate Cancer

The cause of the majority of prostate cancers is unknown. However, the risk of developing prostate cancer may be slightly increased with the following:

Increasing age Prostate cancer is quite rare in men under 50.

Family history If your father or brother is diagnosed with prostate cancer you are two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer yourself. If they had it at a young age your risk is greater still.

*Genetics Men who carry a faulty BRCA2 gene are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer. To learn more about the BRCA gene in men, click here.

Diet the Western diet, which is rich in fats and low in fibre, may increase risk.

Race African-American and African-Caribbean men are more at risk than other ethnic groups.

Click here for more information about risks factors and causes of prostate cancer.

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What Should You Do If You Have The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

If you are presenting one or more of the warning signs of prostate cancer, then it would be wise to promptly consult with a qualified physician. Your symptoms may indicate another, less serious condition and even if you do receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer, it is much easier to treat this disease when detected early on.

To learn more, contact our team of medical professionals at Care New England today.

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Recognizing The Risk Factors

  • 1Keep in mind that age is the most significant risk factor for developing prostate cancer. Men younger than 40 have a rare incidence of prostate cancer, but the chances increase rapidly after 50 years of age. Statistics show that 6 out of 10 cases of prostate cancer are found in men 65 and older.XResearch sourceParker PM, Rice KR, Sterbis JR, Chen Y, Cullen J, McLeod DG, Brassell SA. Prostate cancer in men less than the age of 50: a comparison of race and outcomes. Urology. 2011 78:110.
  • It has been hypothesized that the increase risk with age may be due do DNA and anti-cancer protective mechanisms becoming weaker with age and thus more susceptible to cellular and genetic mutations. Mutations often lead to abnormal cells, such as cancer.
  • 2Factor in your ethnicity. According to the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer is more common in men of African descent than in white or Hispanic men.XTrustworthy SourceAmerican Cancer SocietyNonprofit devoted to promoting cancer research, education, and supportGo to source
  • 3Consider your family history. A positive family history plays a role in the development of prostate cancer. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer doubles a man’s risk for developing the disease. The risk is higher in men with several affected relatives.
  • Studies have shown that certain mutations in inherited genes may potentially raise the risk for prostate cancer but accounts for a small fraction of cases.
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    How To Know Whether It Is Cancer

    If you have any of the mentioned signs, you should see a doctor. They will take the steps to rule out cancer.

    However, you can read here the different options :

    · RECTAL EXAMINATION

    The doctor checks your prostate through your rectum, with a finger. The prostate is in contact with the rectum so this is the way to palpate it.

    By doing so, the doctor can check if it is enlarged, if it has hard nodules

    · PSA

    It is detected through a blood test. The more prostatic tissue you have, the higher value of PSA you have.

    It is useful if you have a normal PSA value because that virtually rules out cancer. If your PSA is okay, your prostate is probably ok.

    However, if you have a high PSA then you have more prostatic tissue than normal. Maybe you have BPH .

    Prostatitis also causes a high PSA, because of the irritated tissue.

    So if PSA is normal then everything is good. If PSA is highyou probably need some extra tests to find out what is wrong.

    An increased PSA can be due to prostate cancer, but also to BPH and prostatitis.

    · PROSTATE MRI

    You go inside the MRI machine and stay still for around 30 minutes.

    Usually, it also requires intravenous contrast so you will need an IV line.

    • This test will tell the doctor if there are any suspiciousnodules inside the prostate. Also, it will show the prostate cancer stage.
    • It will also show if it is a large prostate, but with no malignant nodules .

    If there are no nodules, everythings fine. If there are you may need a biopsy.

    · PROSTATE BIOPSY

    Tests Used To Check The Prostate

    How to Know If Cancer Has Spread | Prostate Cancer

    This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.

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    Biopsy Vs Prostate Mri

    A prostate biopsy is a procedure performed to remove samples of suspicious tissue from the prostate and is used to detect prostate cancer. The most common way of performing a prostate biopsy is passing the needle through the wall of the rectum in a procedure known as a transrectal biopsy. Stereotactic Transperineal Prostate Biopsy is performed by comprehensively sampling the prostate through the perineum while the patient is under general anesthesia. The benefits of STPB include:

    • An increased ability to identify hiding cancers
    • No hospital stay necessary
    • Very low level of discomfort
    • Virtually no risk of infection from the procedure

    The prostate biopsy diagnosis has been around for a while and has proven results, some patients might choose to opt for a more non-invasive alternative such as a prostate MRI.

    The main difference between the procedures stems from an MRIs use of magnetic waves to produce an image, as opposed to needle insertion of a prostate biopsy. The prostate MRI can also help find prostate cancer if you previously had elevated or rising PSAs. MRI is comparable in accuracy to prostate biopsy and it can be essential to help determine the extent of the prostate cancer by helping Doctors find out if the cancer has spread. We recommend you talk to your Doctor for more information on whether a prostate MRI or a prostate biopsy is better for your treatment.

    Other Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer can grow slowly, especially in older men. Symptoms may be mild and occur over many years. Sometimes the first symptoms are from prostate cancer which has spread to your bones but this is not common. Prostate cancer cells in the bone may cause pain in your back, hips, pelvis or other bony areas. Cancer that has spread to other areas of the body is called metastatic or secondary prostate cancer.

    Other symptoms that may occur are weight loss, particularly in elderly men, and difficulty getting an erection .

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