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Best Option For Prostate Cancer

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Does Msk Offer Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Which is Better – Surgery vs. Radiation for Prostate Cancer?

Some men with prostate cancer may choose to receive another form of external-beam radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy can deliver a high radiation dose to the prostate while lowering the radiation dose to normal surrounding tissue. It is unclear if there is any advantage to proton therapy compared with IMRT. We are now studying how these approaches compare in terms of side effects and outcomes at the New York Proton Center. These efforts are being led by radiation oncologist Daniel Gorovets.

Treatment By Stage Of Prostate Cancer

Different treatments may be recommended for each stage of prostate cancer. Your doctor will work with you to develop a specific treatment plan based on the cancers stage and other factors. Detailed descriptions of each type of treatment are provided earlier on this same page. Clinical trials may also be a treatment option for each stage.

Early-stage prostate cancer

Early-stage prostate cancer usually grows very slowly and may take years to cause any symptoms or other health problems, if it ever does at all. As a result, active surveillance or watchful waiting may be recommended. Radiation therapy or surgery may also be suggested, as well as treatment in clinical trials. For those with a higher Gleason score, the cancer may be faster growing, so radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are often recommended. Your doctor will consider your age and general health before recommending a treatment plan.

ASCO, the American Urological Association, American Society of Radiation Oncology, and the Society of Urologic Oncology recommend that patients with high-risk early-stage prostate cancer that has not spread to other areas of the body should receive radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy with hormonal therapy as standard treatment options.

Locally advanced prostate cancer

Watchful waiting may be considered for older adults who are not expected to live for a long time and whose cancer is not causing symptoms or for those who have another, more serious illness.

What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get prostate cancer?
  • What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
  • Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
  • What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
  • If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
  • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
  • Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
  • Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
  • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.

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What If My Biopsy Shows Cancer

If the biopsy shows prostate cancer, your doctor will determine how likely your cancer is to grow quickly and spread. Sometimes, prostate cancer grows slowly over many years. But other times, it grows quickly.

Your doctor can use your PSA level, Gleason score, and tumor score to determine your risk level. The following pages give more information about Gleason score, T-score, and prostate cancer risk levels.

Gleason Score

The Gleason score is a common scale used to determine how fast your prostate cancer is likely to grow. Gleason scores can range from 2 to 10, but most often range from 6 to 10. The higher the Gleason score, the more likely your cancer is to grow and spread.

Tumor Score

The T-score tells how far your prostate cancer has grown.

  • T1: The cancer is too small to be felt during a digital rectal exam or seen in an imaging test . The cancer is found from a biopsy done after a man has a high PSA level or has surgery for problems urinating. The cancer is only in the prostate gland.
  • T2: The cancer can be felt during a digital rectal exam and may be seen in an imaging test. The cancer is still only in the prostate gland.
  • T2a: The cancer is in one-fourth of the prostate gland .
  • T2b: The cancer is in more than one-fourth of the prostate gland , but has not grown into the other side of the prostate gland.
  • T2c: The cancer has grown into both sides of the prostate gland.

Risk Level

Table 1. Determining risk level

Risk Level*

Do All Men With Prostate Cancer Need Their Prostates Removed

The Ultimate Guide To Dealing With Prostate Cancer By A Singaporean ...

For many men, prostate removal surgery called a prostatectomy can be avoided. This is to help avoid significant side effects that many men experience, sometimes permanently, including urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Because of this, its a good idea to consider other cancer treatments that keep the prostate intact when possible.

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Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer

There are a number of different treatments for prostate cancer. You may have a choice of treatments such as surgery or radiotherapy. Or your doctor might suggest that you have monitoring of your cancer instead of treatment straight away. Your doctor will recommend the best treatment for you.

This page is about treatment for people who have prostate cancer that hasnt spread to other parts of the body. We also have information about treatment for people who have prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. This is metastatic or advanced prostate cancer.

Active Surveillance For Prostate Cancer

One common approach to treating prostate cancer is active surveillance. This treatment method is typically used when prostate cancer surgery or treatment could cause more harm than the cancer in its current state. Active surveillance generally requires more routine checkups and screenings to evaluate any changes in the cancer to determine if other intervention methods are worth pursuing. Additional treatment can be implemented if there is a marked change in lab values or other aspects of the patients overall condition.

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Treatment For Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer

Intermediate risk prostate cancers are the most frequently treated prostate cancers. They are cancers that are confined to the prostate, often are Gleason 7 and have a PSA of less than 20. These cancers are treated in men with life expectancy greater than 10 years to prevent spread of the cancer in the long-term. There are a number of different effective treatment options for intermediate risk prostate cancer and the decision is often a personal one. Here at UCLA we recommend consultation with both Urologist and Radiation Oncologist to help men decide which treatment option is best for them.

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Choosing To Stop Treatment Or Choosing No Treatment At All

Prostate Cancer Pathology in 2021 | Jonathan Epstein, MD | PCRI 2021 Conference

For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

Some people, especially if the cancer is advanced, might not want to be treated at all. There are many reasons you might decide not to get cancer treatment, but its important to talk to your doctors and you make that decision. Remember that even if you choose not to treat the cancer, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms.

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Observation Through Active Surveillance

Focusing on quality of life, Chicago Prostate Cancer Center tailors treatment to maximize each patients health outcomes. At the Center, men who choose to follow the observation path, also called Active Surveillance, receive periodic evaluation for prostate cancer risk based on: prostate specific antigen blood test results, detection of abnormal prostate upon digital rectal exam, current and past health considerations, family history of prostate or other cancers, as well as other factors.

Active surveillance, radiation therapy, and surgery all have advantages and disadvantages .13,2427 A randomized controlled trial of 1,643 men in Great Britain compared active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, and external beam radiation therapy for treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer over a median of 10 years.24 There were 17 prostate cancerspecific deaths overall: eight in the active-surveillance group , five in the radical prostatectomy group , and four in the EBRT group . There were no significant differences among groups in prostate cancerspecific mortality or all-cause mortality. Surgery and radiation therapy were associated with lower incidences of disease progression than active surveillance. No trials have compared treatment outcomes by race or ethnicity.

Summary of Curative Treatment Options for Localized Prostate Cancer

Radical prostatectomy

Information from references 13, and 24 through 27.

Radical prostatectomy

Recovery From Radical Prostatectomy

Typical hospital stays following radical prostatectomy are one to two days. You will need to use a catheter to help drain your bladder for one to two weeks after surgery. Regardless of the surgical approach, you should expect to be walking soon after your procedure. Walking helps speed up your recovery and reduces your risk of developing complications. Recovery from prostate cancer usually involves a process of regaining continence and potency .

  • Incontinence:Prostate surgery may affect your ability to control urine, resulting in leakage or dribbling of urine. Normal bladder control returns for many patients within several months. In rare cases, patients may remain permanently incontinent.

  • Impotence: The nerves that control erection, which run on either side of the prostate, are very delicate and can take time to recover. Full erectile recovery can take up to two years. While recovering, men may benefit from using oral medications , injection therapy, vacuum devices and penile implants. The nerves controlling the sensation of orgasm are not affected by prostate surgery. However, for some men, orgasm may decrease in intensity or become nonexistent. The degree of erectile dysfunction relates to the cancer burden, how many nerves were removed, the patients ability to have an erection before surgery and the patients age.

Robotic Prostate Surgery | Q& A

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Initial Treatment Of Prostate Cancer By Stage

The stage of your cancer is one of the most important factors in choosing the best way to treat it. Prostate cancer is staged based on the extent of the cancer and the PSA level and Gleason score when it is first diagnosed.

For prostate cancers that havent spread , doctors also use risk groups to help determine treatment options. Risk groups range from very low risk to very high risk, with lower risk group cancers having a smaller chance of growing and spreading compared to those in higher risk groups.

Other factors, such as your age, overall health, life expectancy, and personal preferences are also taken into account when looking at treatment options. In fact, many doctors determine a mans possible treatment options based not just on the stage, but on the risk of cancer coming back after the initial treatment and on the mans life expectancy.

You might want to ask your doctor what factors he or she is considering when discussing your treatment options. Some doctors might recommend options that are different from those listed here.

Focal Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Management of Prostate Cancer

With recent advances in MRI and targeted biopsy, we are better able to locate the exact area of prostate cancer. Men who do not have an enlarged prostate, who have prostate cancer that is detected only in a single region of the prostate and have intermediate grade cancer can be a candidate for focal therapy. This type of therapy treats only the cancerous tissue and spares the normal prostate, thereby preserving urinary and sexual function

Here at UCLA we commonly use cryotherapy or HIFU to focally treat prostate cancer. Given that this is a relatively new form of treatment, we have established rigorous post-treatment protocols using MRI and biopsies to ensure that the cancer has been adequately treated.

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Treatments For Prostate Cancer That Hasnt Spread

Prostate cancer that is contained within the prostate gland is called localised prostate cancer. Doctors look at different factors to divide men into different groups according to whether the cancer is likely to grow quickly or slowly, or whether it is likely to spread. They use this information to work out which treatments are best for each man. You can find information about low risk, intermediate risk and high risk localised prostate cancer in this section.

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94

This multi-institutional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the addition of AST to RT on overall survival, freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from clinical progression, and disease-free survival in patients with localized prostate cancer in response to the positive effect on these parameters seen in RTOG 86-10. To this end, 1979 patients with T1bT2b prostate cancer and PSA less than 20 ng/ml were randomized to receive EBRT alone or in conjunction with 2 months of neoadjuvant and 2 months of concurrent goserelin and flutamide.

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What Is The Source Of The Information

Researchers funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a Federal Government research agency, reviewed studies on treatments for localized prostate cancer published between January 1, 2007, and March 7, 2014. The report included 52 studies and was reviewed by health care professionals, researchers, experts, and the public.

Expert Review And References

Side Effects of Surgery Vs Radiation for Prostate Cancer
  • American Cancer Society. Treating Prostate Cancer. 2019: .
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prostate Cancer. 2020: .
  • Tracy, CR. Prostate Cancer. eMedicine/Medscape 2020: .
  • PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Patient Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
  • PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer . 2020: .
  • Zelefsky MJ, Morris MJ, Eastham JA. Cancer of the prostate. DeVita VT Jr., Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds.. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer 2019: 70: 1087-1136.
  • Parker C, Castro E, Fizazi K et al . Prostate cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatmentand follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2020: 31: 1119-1134. .

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Considering Complementary And Alternative Methods

You may hear about alternative or complementary methods that your doctor hasnt mentioned to treat your cancer or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few.

Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical care. Alternative treatments are used instead of a doctors medical treatment. Although some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms or helping you feel better, many have not been proven to work. Some might even be harmful.

Be sure to talk to your cancer care team about any method you are thinking about using. They can help you learn what is known about the method, which can help you make an informed decision.

How Far Your Prostate Cancer Has Grown And Spread

The stage refers to the size of the tumour in your prostate and how far it has grown- that is whether it is completely inside the prostate gland or if it has spread outside the prostate. The treatment the doctors choose will be different depending on the stage of the cancer. The diagram below shows a cancer contained within the prostate. There is detailed information about staging prostate cancer in this section.

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Are There Side Effects Of The Combination Approach

There is a slightly higher chance that patients who receive the combined therapy will have rectal irritation or urinary side effects. This is common with prostate cancer radiation therapy because the radiation can damage cells in the tissues surrounding the prostate. But at MSK, we routinely use sophisticated computer-based planning techniques that help us reduce the dose given to normal tissues such as the rectum, bladder, and urethra, lessening the chances of side effects and complications. We have also found that, when treating with the combined approach, using the high-dose-rate brachytherapy compared to low-dose-rate brachytherapy may have less in the way of side effects.

In addition, at MSK, we routinely use a rectal spacer gel, which we inject between the prostate and the rectum while the patient is under mild anesthesia, to create a buffer between these two tissues. By creating this space, we can further reduce the dose of radiation the rectum is exposed to. This leads to fewer side effects for the patient. The rectal spacer gel is biodegradable and dissolves on its own within the body after a few months.

Some Things To Consider When Choosing Among Treatments

Level 3 Of Prostate cancer

Before deciding on treatment, here are some questions you may want to ask yourself:

  • Are you the type of person who needs to do something about your cancer, even if it might result in serious side effects?
  • Would you be comfortable with watchful waiting or active surveillance, even if it means you might have more anxiety and need more frequent follow-up appointments in the future?
  • Do you need to know right away whether your doctor was able to get all of the cancer out ? Or are you comfortable with not knowing the results of treatment for a while if it means not having to have surgery?
  • Do you prefer to go with the newest technology , which might have some advantages? Or do you prefer to go with better proven treatments that doctors might have more experience with?
  • Which potential treatment side effects might be most distressing to you?
  • How important for you are issues like the amount of time spent in treatment or recovery?
  • If your initial treatment is not successful, what would your options be at that point?

Many men find it very stressful to have to choose between treatment options, and are very fearful they will choose the âwrongâ one. In many cases, there is no single best option, so itâs important to take your time and decide which option is right for you.

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